The conference is to take place successively in four localities, which have special meanings in Indonesian liberation movement and special relations with Sukarno: Jakarta-Bandung-Surabaya-Bali.



Jakarta was an old settlement dated back at the 4th century, under the control of different kingdoms, until it was named Jayakarta at the 16th century. The Dutch East India Company conquered the area and founded a fort Batavia at the 17th century and developed it progressively as the economic, political and administrative centre of the Dutch East India until the Japanese arrival in 1942. Thanks to this latter, Sukarno — who was put in jail in Bandung and in exile in different islands of Indonesia since the 1930s by the Dutch colonial government — was liberated from detention. Being aware of the nature of Japanese temporary military occupation, Sukarno moved to Batavia then called Jakarta, took advantage of the Japanese discourse of Pan-Asianism for advancing the national movement of Indonesian independence, in a hidden collaboration with his comrades who resisted clandestinely the Japanese occupation. There he led the preparation of Indonesian independence, formulated the philosophical foundation and the constitution of the state to be born. Following the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the independence of Indonesia on August 17, 1945.



Around 150 km south-east of Jakarta, Bandung is situated at a mountainous area of West Java (768 meters above sea level), surrounded by tea plantations, a resort city of plantation owners during the Dutch colonial period, marked by luxurious hotels, restaurants, cafés, and European boutiques, leading to its nickname Parijs van Java (Dutch: “The Paris of Java”). There the Dutch founded the first Technische Hoogeschool (Higher School of Engineering) in 1920 (now ITB, Bandung Institute of Technology) where Sukarno was among the first and rare “indigenous” students until his graduation as architectural and civil engineer in 1926. There he developed his intellectual orientation and capacity, his talent as writer and orator, his discourses and actions in forming Indonesia as a nation, his struggle against colonialism and imperialism, his leadership in national movements for Indonesian independence. There, at the age of 25 years, he wrote his synthesis of “Islam, Marxism and Nationalism”, which became his personal and political conviction until the end of his life in 1970. There he got to know with colonial prisons and exiles until the end of the Dutch colonial occupation of Indonesia in 1942. There he was put in jail by the Dutch colonial government for his movement, during which he wrote his “Indonesia Menggugat” (Indonesia Accuses) and pronounced it as his defence at the Dutch colonial trial in 1930, a text that became the “manifesto” of independent Indonesia. There the Asian-African Conference took place in 1955.



Around 750 km east of Bandung, Surabaya is the second biggest city of Indonesia, settled in the 10th century, a major political and military power as well as a port in eastern Java until the 16th century linking the trade route between Malacca and the Spice Islands of Moluccas via the Java Sea, a major economic centre of the Dutch East India before the WW II. It is also the cradle of Indonesian movements for national liberation from colonialism and imperialism, the main battlefield of Indonesian struggle for independence. There Sukarno was born (1901) and brought up. There he got to know at his teenage years with revolutionary literature and global movements (he discovered Marx and Marxism at the age of 16 years — 1917, Russian October Revolution — got familiarised with literature of revolutions and revolutionary movements in France, Russia, China, India, Egypt, Turkey, Latin America…). There he met his political mentor (Tjokroaminoto, founder and leader of the biggest political party in Southeast Asia before the first world war) and comrades who became later the most important national radical political leaders of independent Indonesia (Communist at one side and Islamist at the other side). Following the defeat of Japan in the WW II and the proclamation of Indonesian independence, the Dutch came back with the help of the British to retake the control over Indonesia in 1945. Surabaya was bombed by British aviation on November 10, 1945, which triggered the war for Indonesian independence, starting from Surabaya, until the international recognition of Indonesian sovereignty in 1949. This is why Surabaya was known as “City of Hero” and Sukarno called it “the kitchen of Indonesian revolution”.



Around 450 south-east of Surabaya, Bali is known as a “paradise island”, an “island of gods”, and some other iconic names. The island is characterised by Hindu-Balinese centuries of tradition with multiple rituals and ceremonies. The Balinese struggle against the Dutch colonial occupation was marked by three heroic wars known as “Puputan” (resistance until the last drop of blood): Puputan Buleleng (1844-1849), Puputan Badung (1904-1906) and Puputan Margarana (1946). Bali has also a special place in Indonesia since Sukarno’s mother is Balinese. After Indonesian independence, a presidential palace was built in Tampaksiring, Gianyar, Bali following the ideas of Sukarno. The uniqueness of Bali in art, architecture, tradition, custom, hospitality and natural environment led it to be the most important tourist destination of Indonesia and venues of international meetings, festivals, conferences, forums, summits. There the G20 Summit will take place on November 15-16, 2022.




JAKARTA (2 nights)

Hosting Institution: ANRI (National Archives of the Republic of Indonesia)

05/11 Saturday: Informal Progressive arrival of participants

06/11 Sunday: Informal program. Jakarta Tour

07/11 Monday: Full Day Plenary Session — Moving to Bandung by bus (150 km)


BANDUNG (2 nights)

Hosting Institutions: Universitas Padjadjaran

08/11 Tuesday: Bandung Half Day Visit and Plenary Session — Sociocultural Evening

09/11 Wednesday: Half Day Parallel Sessions — Moving to Surabaya by bus (750 km)


SURABAYA (3 nights)

Hosting Institution: Universitas Airlangga

10/11 Thursday: Surabaya Visit of Historical Sites

11/11 Friday: Plenary & Parallel Sessions — Sociocultural Evening

12/11 Saturday: Half Day Parallel Sessions — Moving to Bali by plane (450 km)


BALI (2 nights)

Hosting Institution: Universitas Udayana

13/11 Sunday: Plenary & Parallel Sessions — Closing Session — Sociocultural Evening

14/11 Monday: Informal Bali Visit & Cultural Activities